By the time students finish the 11th grade, they should be able to practice and apply several core mathematics concepts, which include subject matter learned from Algebra and Pre-Calculus courses. All students completing the 11th grade are expected to demonstrate their comprehension of core concepts like real numbers, functions, and algebraic expressions; income, budgeting, and tax allocations; logarithms, vectors, and complex numbers; and statistical analysis, probability, and binomials.

However, the math skills required to complete the 11th grade vary depending on the difficulty of the individual students' education track and the standards of certain districts, states, regions, and countries—while advanced students may be completing their Pre-Calculus course, remedial students might still be completing Geometry during their junior year, and average students might be taking Algebra II.

With graduation a year away, students are expected to have a nearly comprehensive knowledge of most core math skills that will be needed for higher education in university mathematics, statistics, economics, finance, science, and engineering courses.

## The Different Learning Tracks for High School Mathematics

Depending on the aptitude of the student for the field of mathematics, he or she may choose to enter one of three education tracks for the subject: remedial, average, or expedited, each of which offers its own path to learning the basic concepts needed for completion of the 11th grade.

Students taking the remedial course will have completed Pre-Algebra in the ninth grade and Algebra I in the 10th, meaning they would need to take either Algebra II or Geometry in 11th while students on the normal mathematics track will have taken Algebra I in the ninth grade and either Algebra II or Geometry in the 10th, meaning they would need to take the opposite during the 11th grade.

Advanced students, on the other hand, have already completed all of the subjects listed above by the end of the 10th grade and are thus ready to begin understanding the complex mathematics of Pre-Calculus.

## Core Math Concepts Every 11th Grader Should Know

Still, no matter the level of aptitude a student has in mathematics, he or she is required to meet demonstrate a certain level of understanding of core concepts of the field including those associated with Algebra and Geometry as well as statistics and financial math.

In Algebra, students should be able to identify real numbers, functions, and algebraic expressions; understand linear equations, first degree inequalities, functions, quadratic equations and polynomial expressions; manipulate polynomials, rational expressions, and exponential expressions; illustrate the slope of a line and rate of change; use and model the distributive properties; understand Logarithmic Functions and in some cases Matrices and matrix equations; and practice use of the Remainder Theorem, the Factor Theorem, and the Rational Root Theorem.

Students in the advanced course of Pre-Calculus should demonstrate an ability to investigate sequences and series; understand properties and applications of trigonometric functions and their inverses; apply conic sections, sine law, and cosine law; investigate the equations of sinusoidal functions, and practice Trigonometric and circular functions.

In terms of statistics, students should be able to summarize and interpret data in meaningful ways; define probability, linear and nonlinear regression; test hypotheses using Binomial, Normal, Student-t and Chi-square distributions; use the fundamental counting principle, permutations, and combinations; interpret and apply normal and binomial probability distributions; and identify normal distribution patterns.